Copyright: © G. Pradel

he figure depics the three pathways of the host cell exit by intracellular pathogens.

The first pathway comprises the induction of programmed cell death including non-lytic apoptosis and lytic necroptosis and pyroptosis.

The second pathway includes the active destruction of host cell membranes, here both vacuole and plasma membranes.

The third pathway comprises the induced, membrane-dependent exit without destroying the host cell, for example by actin-mediated protrusions, marked in yellow, or by budding, extrusion, exocytosis or ejection through the ejectosome, marked with a yellow box. Pathogens for which at least one of the pathways has been postulated are indicated.

The figure shown is from Flieger et al. 2018. Microb Cell 5:525-544.